Russian victory parade sparks chills across the west

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Three years after the start of the protracted war to liberate Rwanda from the tyrannical rule of Major General Juvénal Habyarimana, it was clear that the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF / A) rebels were already controlling large areas of the country.

The rebels had exerted deadly pressure on the government, which had agreed to negotiated terms of power sharing. On August 4, 1993, the two sides signed a peace accord in Arusha, Tanzania.

The Arusha negotiations between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandan Patriotic Front envisaged the establishment of a broad-based transitional government (BBTG), which would include the insurgent RPF and the five political parties that made up a government. provisional since April 1992 in anticipation of the legislative elections.

These agreements included other items deemed necessary for a lasting peace: the rule of law, the repatriation of refugees from both fighting and power-sharing agreements, and the merging of government and rebel armies.

Meanwhile, Rwanda continued to accuse Uganda of supporting the RPF; Uganda has denied the allegations. On February 22, 1993, the two countries asked the United Nations to help them establish the facts.

In separate letters to the President of the United Nations Security Council, the two countries called for the deployment of United Nations military observers along their 150-kilometer shared border to prevent military use of the area, in particular the transport of military supplies.

Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali decided to send a goodwill mission to Rwanda and Uganda from March 4 to 18, 1993. A technical mission sent by the Secretary General to the border area visited Uganda from March 2 to 18, 1993. April 5 and in Rwanda on April 6.

The mission indicated that it would be possible to deploy United Nations military observers to monitor the border between Uganda and Rwanda and verify that no military assistance was provided on either side. As RPF control over the border area was extensive, military observers had to be deployed on the Ugandan side of the border.

On June 22, 1993, the Security Council, by its resolution 846 (1993), authorized the establishment of the United Nations Observer Mission for Uganda and Rwanda (UNOMUR) on the Ugandan side of the common border, to an initial period of six months, subject to review every six months.

A United Nations reconnaissance mission visited Rwanda from August 19 to 31, 1993. Its senior officials also consulted the Government of Tanzania and the Secretary General of the OAU.

Based on the findings of the mission, the Secretary-General recommended to the Security Council the creation of a United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), with the mandate to “contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a climate conducive to the secure installation and subsequent functioning of the transitional government ”.

UNAMIR was created on October 5 by Security Council resolution 872 (1993).

On 18 October 1993, the Secretary-General informed Council that he would appoint Brigadier General Dallaire, then CMO of UNOMUR, to the post of Force Commander of UNAMIR. General Dallaire arrived in Kigali on October 22, 1993, followed by a precursor group of 21 soldiers on October 27.

A status of forces agreement was signed by the Government on November 5, 1993 and a copy was sent to the RPF, which confirmed its willingness to cooperate in its implementation.

On November 12, the Secretary-General informed the Council that he had decided to appoint his Special Representative for Rwanda, Mr. Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh, former Minister of External Relations of Cameroon. Mr. Booh-Booh arrived in Kigali on November 23, 1993.

The main functions of UNAMIR would be to help ensure the security of the capital Kigali; monitor the ceasefire agreement, including the establishment of an enlarged demilitarized zone (DMZ) and demobilization procedures; monitor the security situation during the last period of the transitional government’s mandate leading up to the elections; and assist in mine clearance.

The Mission would also investigate allegations of non-compliance with the provisions of the peace agreement and ensure the safe repatriation of Rwandan refugees and internally displaced persons.

In addition, it would help coordinate humanitarian assistance activities alongside relief operations.

The Secretary-General proposed that the UNOMUR military observers be placed under the command of the new Mission, while maintaining their separate surveillance tasks on the border between Uganda and Rwanda.

UNAMIR would also incorporate elements of NMOG II which was mandated by the OAU to oversee the ceasefire until October 31, 1993.

The operation would take place in four phases. The first phase would begin on the day the Security Council established UNAMIR and would end on the date of the installation of the transitional government, estimated at the end of 1993.

The objective of the UNAMIR would be to establish the conditions of secure installation of such a government and its strength, at the end of the first phase, would amount to 1,428 soldiers.

During phase two, which should last 90 days or until the start of the process of disengagement, demobilization and integration of the armed forces and the gendarmerie, the strengthening of the Mission would continue with a total of 2,548 military personnel. .

UNAMIR would continue to monitor the DMZ, help ensure security in Kigali and demarcate assembly areas, and ensure that all preparations for disengagement, demobilization and integration are in place. .

During the third phase, which would last approximately 9 months, the Mission would establish, supervise and monitor a new DMZ and continue to provide security in Kigali.

The disengagement, demobilization and integration of the Forces and the Gendarmerie would be completed at this stage, and the Mission would reduce its strength to approximately 1,240 people.

Phase four, which would last approximately four months, would see a further reduction in the strength of the Mission to the minimum level of around 930 personnel.

UNAMIR would help ensure the necessary security climate in the final stages of the transition period leading up to the elections.

In order to verify that public order was maintained in an efficient and impartial manner, the Secretary-General proposed to deploy a small United Nations civilian police unit in Kigali and in the nine prefectural capitals of Rwanda and in military facilities. specific font.

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